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The Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal is one of the most visited historical buildings in the world. It is also India’s most visited tourist destination. Completed in 20 years, Taj Mahal is located in Agra, India. This work of Turkish architects (Mehmet İsa Efendi and Mehmet İsmail Efendi) brought from Istanbul is the most beautiful and the most famous tomb of the world.

Architectural

The Taj Mahal was built by Shah Jahan (1593-1666), the fifth ruler of the Timurogul dynasty of the Turkish Empire of India, on the banks of the Jumna River in Agra, India, the capital of the empire at that time. This tomb, which is accepted as the biggest and most beautiful monument erected for love in the world, was built on the memory of Shah Jahan’s wife Ercümend Banu (Mumtaz Banu). The architects of the building, Mehmet İsa Efendi and Mehmet İsmail Efendi, one of the students of Mimar Sinan, and Hattat Serdar Efendi, who wrote the articles in the building, were invited by Şah Cihan from Istanbul for the construction of the work. Construction started in 1630 and completed in 1652 after 22 years.

White marble with bright, thin blue veins was used in the construction of the Taj Mahal. The dome, which is made of the same marble and has a height of 82 meters from the ground, was built by the architect İsmail Efendi. There is a golden realm on the dome. There are four minarets mausoleum of white marble. The entire Yasin surah was written by Hattat İsmail Efendi on all sides of the monument.

Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan’s chests are on the top floor, under the dome. In the dome where the chests are located, each sound coming from the human mouth has an acoustics that can be echoed 7 times. The actual sarcophagi of the shah and his wife are on the lowest floor. There are 42 emeralds, 142 rubies, 625 diamonds and 50 very large pearls on the walls of the Taj Mahal which are buried in hundreds of thousands of agate, mother of pearl and turquoise. Enchanting everyone with its romantic appearance, the Taj Mahal, inspired by many famous Western writers and poets, looks brighter than the moon even on moonlit nights. In the Indo-Pakistan War of 1966, the Indian government had to cover the dome with a black tent in order to avoid any glimmer of Pakistani warplanes.

The Taj Mahal

There are many architectural wonders of the Baburians in India, and some of them remain intact, sparkling and fascinate the audience today. Today, Lahore Palace, one of the most popular tourist destinations in Pakistan, is the masterpiece of architecture in the same city, with the largest and most cloistered courtyard of the world, Sultan Masjid, the palaces and mosques in Agra, Delhi, Hyderabad and other cities. However, no shrine, no architectural work on earth is as beautiful, spectacular and famous as the Taj Mahal.

Shah Jahan’s wife, Ercümend Banu, was the most distinguished sultan who conquered the hearts of the whole empire with its beauty, intelligence and kindness. It was called Mümtaz Mahal because of this characteristic. Shah Jahan fell in love with him when he was only 16 years old and had waited five years to get married. Shah Jahan took his beloved wife everywhere he went, and cared about his ideas and pleasure.

This soulful, intelligent and beautiful woman passed away in 1631 while giving birth to her 14th child. For eight days following the death of his wife, Shah Jahan stopped eating and drinking and never left his room. On the ninth day, when he opened the door of his apartment and went out, his hair was white and collapsed. Emotional, true lover, loyal ruler, decided to have a mausoleum built for his beloved wife to live in his heart until his death. This tomb should have been beautiful, heartwarming, yet magnificent to symbolize pure love. For this he would find the greatest masters of the world and give his treasure to their disposal to be spent on this work. For this purpose, architects from Istanbul asked. The architect who came was Mehmed İsa Efendi and his team, one of the students of Mimar Sinan.

Mehmed Isa Effendi’s plan for months working on the structure of the Taj Mahal, a very clear, white marble was used. The bright white marble also had fine blue veins. The height of this magnificent dome is 82 meters. This height increases with the golden realm above the dome. The tomb also has four minarets of white marble.

The construction began in 1632 and was completed in 1652. The chests of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan, who were placed next to him after his death, are on the top floor. The most beautiful examples of marble carving are seen in these chests under the dome. Where the coffins are, every sound from the human mouth echoes seven times in the magnificent dome.

The walls of the Taj Mahal, which is a treasure of art in itself, are decorated with real treasure stones. There are 42 emeralds, 142 rubies, 625 diamonds and 50 very large pearls on the walls which are buried in hundreds of thousands of agate, mother of pearl and turquoise. 47 million gold pounds were spent for the construction of the tomb, which did not include jewels on the walls. Even if we say that 19 million gold pounds were spent even for the magnificent Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, it is easier to understand what a tremendous sacrifice was made for the Taj Mahal.

This monument is the work of Turkish architects invited by Shah Cihan from Istanbul. Its plan was made by Mehmed İsa Efendi from Istanbul and the dome Istanbul architect İsmail Efendi, who wrote the great calligraphy Serdar Efendi from Istanbul. Many foreign masters, meanwhile Italian architects, worked at their disposal.

construction

According to the legend, after the construction was finished, the arms of the tomb workers were cut to avoid making another one of the same work. Today it is India’s most tourist-attracting region. However, the distorted construction around it threatens the future of this historical work. Taj Mahal, which can be seen clearly from many points of its city, is among the most important works of Turkish-Islamic Architecture.

This tomb, which is accepted as the biggest and most beautiful monument erected for love in the world, was built in memory of Shah Jahan’s beloved wife Ercümend Banu Begüm during his birth. (It is believed that women who die in childbearing are sacred.)

The architects of the building; Mehmet İsa Efendi and Mehmet İsmail Efendi, one of the students of Mimar Sinan, and Hattat Serdar Efendi, who wrote the articles in the building, were invited by Şah Cihan from Istanbul for the production of the work. Construction started in 1632 and completed in 1652 after 20 years.

White marble with bright, thin blue veins was used in the construction of the Taj Mahal. The dome, which is made of the same marble and is 82 meters high from the ground, was built by Architect İsmail Efendi and completed in 1648.

There is a golden realm on the dome. There are four minarets mausoleum of white marble. Calligraphy Serdar Efendi has written the entire Yasin surah on all sides of the monument.

In addition to numerous craftsmen in construction, the tomb was completed in 1643, and the surrounding courtyards and structures were finished in 1649, with the work of 20,000 workers per day. The Taj Mahal was completely completed in 1652 in 20 years.

Located in the rectangular courtyard measuring 305×580 meters on the shores of the Yamuna River outside the city of Agra, the Taj Mahal surrounds a 75-meter high monumental dome with 33-meter high crown gates in the middle of its four facades.

Between the lower dome 30 meters high and the upper dome that covers the interior, there is dead space as much as the shrine.

Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan’s chests are on the top floor, under the dome. In the dome where the chests are located, each sound coming from the human mouth has an acoustics that can be echoed 7 times. The real sarcophagi of the Shah and his wife are on the lowest floor.

There are 42 emeralds, 142 rubies, 625 diamonds and 50 very large pearls on the walls of the Taj Mahal which are buried in hundreds of thousands of agate, mother of pearl and turquoise.

Enchanting everyone with its romantic appearance, the Taj Mahal, inspired by many famous Western writers and poets, looks brighter than the moon even on moonlit nights.

Since 1983, the Taj Mahal has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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